In a modern and complex society, mathematics and mathematically trained people play an increasing and critical role. Mathematicians and statisticians may collaborate with biologists and chemists to sequence the human genome or to design and test new drugs. They may manage insurance companies and use chaos theory to solve complex problems in finance. Mathematics is essential in computer science, from cryptography and systems security to the techniques used to create virtual reality.

Graduates with a bachelor's degree in mathematics are ready for careers in such areas as statistics and actuarial science which determines risk, and may set insurance rates and manage pension funds. With relevant education coursework, a graduate in mathematics may become certified to teach high school mathematics.

Beyond these traditional career paths, mathematically trained graduates have a valuable ability to analyze and solve problems. With coursework in the relevant disciplines, graduates in mathematics can excel in software engineering and in finance. A mathematics degree can also be excellent preparation for law school. A graduate in mathematics can pursue an advanced degree in mathematics, statistics or related subjects. Master or doctoral degree holders in mathematics often work in industrial or scientific research and development; holders of doctoral degrees can become college or university professors.